IMPORTANT: The location of your MAX should be decided upon in advance because, once filled with substrate, rocks and water, the aquarium must not be moved. Consider the following parameters in choosing the location.
Tank weight and support
The Max 130 & 130D both weigh around 200kg (440lbs), The Max 250 weighs approximately 350kg (770lbs) when filled with water, reef base and live rock. If you choose not to use the MAX Cabinet, consider this weight when selecting an alternative aquarium support or stand. If the support you choose is not designed specifically as an aquarium stand, ensure that it can both withstand the weight and that it remains balanced and level; it should also be constructed from a material that is splash proof. The MAX, like all glass aquariums, may crack if subjected to sudden movement as a result of uneven water pressure on the glass walls.
When choosing a location, ensure that you have enough room to raise the main aquarium hood and remove the skimmer collection cup for regular maintenance. Make sure you can reach the power center switches located at the rear right side of the MAX and that the power center can be removed from its niche. Ensure that the area surrounding the aquarium is waterproof and consider moving away anything that water might damage.
If you plan to use a water chiller, ensure that there is least 10cm / 4″ of clearance behind the MAX to allow for sufficient air circulation.
Site selection is important for correct temperature maintenance. We recommended that you keep the ambient room temperature a comfortable and stable 22°C / 72°F. Avoid placing the tank in front of an air conditioner, heating vents or direct sunlight. A well ventilated room with moderate light is the best place to position the aquarium.
The exact amount will vary with the type of rock you choose. As a rule, you should add 1 kg / 2.2lb of live rock per 10 liters / 2.6 gallons of tank volume and it should occupy at least forty percent of the tank volume. For the MAX 130 & 130D this means approximately 11kg / 24lb of average density live rock For the Max 250 you should aim for around 21kg / 46lbsThe exact amount will vary with the type of rock you choose. As a rule, you should add 1 kg / 2.2lb of live rock per 10 liters / 2.6 gallons of tank volume and it should occupy at least forty percent of the tank volume.
You can set up your reef tank with or without a substrate at the bottom. We recommend using substrate, ideally an Aragonite-based substrate as it helps keep the water chemistry balanced. As Aragonite dissolves slowly in water, it releases calcium ions and carbonates that help maintain proper pH and alkalinity for good coral growth. In an established tank, when the substrate matures, it takes on the characteristics of “live sand” inhabited by millions of microorganisms. These creatures promote a successful aquarium, aiding the biological filtration processes of nitrification, denitrification and the consumption/decomposition of uneaten food. The substrate also provides a natural habitat for small worms and crustaceans that help clean the tank from detritus and play a major role in the delicate ecosystem’s food chain.
A low level of microbubbles in marine aquariums is normal and should be expected. Intense skimming is the secret of great water quality, as it both removes organic waste before it can break down AND maintains a high redox level. This is achieved by super-saturating the water with air, i.e. dissolving more gas into the water than is normal for the given temperature and pressure. Once the super-saturated water leaves the skimmer, it “relaxes” and releases the extra gas in the form of microbubbles.
However, if you think that there are too many microbubbles in your MAX, click here to download the new MAX microbubble diagnostic tool (PDF file). This step-by-step flow chart will help you to accurately diagnose the source of your microbubbles and find the correct remedy.
Firstly, remember that your skimmer will work only if the water contains proteins, as these proteins bind to the surface of the air bubbles and give the bubbles the structural rigidity they need to ascend the neck of the skimmer and settle in the collection cup. If your tank is clean, your skimmer cannot produce foam no matter how much you open the air inlet.
Once you’ve added live rock or fish to your MAX, it can take about an hour before the skimmer starts foaming. Start by opening the inlet valve half-way and observe what happens. After a while, you should see the top of the bubble column rise about half way up the neck of the collection cup. If the column is lower than this, open the air valve slightly; if it’s higher, close it. A little later, you should see dirt starting to collect around the top of the skimmer neck and around the outside of it.
After a day or two you should see thick, dark, gunk in the collection cup, though you’re not likely to get much more than dirt in and on the skimmer neck until your tank is properly stocked or you’ve added some new live rock. If you find the cup filling with bubbles or very watery waste, close the air valve slightly and refer to the skimmer section of the manual to see exactly how to fine-tune the foam production by using the adjustable neck on the skimmer. If there’s thick goo in the skimmer neck but none on the outside of the neck or in the cup itself, open the air valve.
If you’ve just introduced live rock, or something else that’s generated a lot of organic waste in an otherwise clean tank, you might find that after a couple of days the skimmer is no longer producing foam. This means that your water is probably clean by now. Once the skimmer is consistently producing gunk, leave it running all the time – but check it regularly to keep it in tune with changing aquarium conditions.
The dirty film is simply detritus, or dead organic matter, that has risen to the surface of the water and is held there by surface tension. Under normal conditions, surface detritus is drawn into the filtration system. However, if your MAX is filled right up to the base of the rim (i.e. so you can’t see the waterline from the outside), then the surface of the water will actually be above the level of the filter inlet grill, meaning that it does not get drawn into the filtration system. There is no easy way around this, other than to lower the water level (permanently or temporarily) so that the waterline falls to below the top of the inlet grill, or to increase surface turbulence by repositioning the powerheads.
This can be due to two reasons:
Airlock. Foreign material, such as mesh from a media bag, has been sucked in to the inlet of the powerhead and is blocking it
REMEDY: 1. Carefully remove each powerhead from the glass partition to which it’s attached 2. Invert the powerhead body inside the water of the chamber. Shake it gently to release the airlock
Inlet tube blockage. One of the corners of the bio media mesh bag has got sucked into the inlet of the powerhead and is blocking it.
REMEDY: Push the bio media bag down so that its corners away from the powerhead inlet
The water temperature in the aquarium is going over 27°C / 83°F
Check the ambient temperature in the room in which MAX is installed and see the answer to the question I live in a hot climate and I’m worried my MAX will overheat below.
Due to a lack of ventilation in your room you may find that the ambient room temperature has risen or is not in sync with the temperature in the rest of the house. If possible try to reduce the ambient temperature by increasing the ventilation in the room.
Most homes and offices are heated or air conditioned to a comfortable 22–24°C / 72-76°F so the addition of the optional rear water cooling fan should be sufficient to keep the water temperature in the desired range.
For the original MAX, supplied without a rear cooling fan, Red Sea is now offering a complete fan kit which includes a cooling fan, DC power adaptor and installation instructions. The MAX 130D is supplied with this as standard, and the Max 250 has an integrated twin cooling fan unit.
The MAX hoods fans are designed to keep key electrical components cool, prolonging their life and helping to maintain a stable temperature in the aquarium. Due to the nature of the environment they are subject to wear and will periodically require replacing. Please contact your local distributor for details of replacement fan availability and installation instructions.
In long-term tests we conducted on the MAX 130 & 130D in our laboratory, the system proved capable of supporting all soft corals (Sarcophyton sp., Lobophytum sp., Sinularia sp., Xenia; Cladiella sp., etc.), all LPSs (Large Polyp Scleractinia, like Euphyllia sp., Plerogyra sp., Nemenzophyllia sp., Trachphyllia sp., Caulestra sp., etc.), some SPSs (Small Polyp Scleractinia, such as Stylophora sp. and Seriatopora), sea anemones, all types of crustacean (cleaner shrimps, peppermint shrimps, hermit crabs, scarlet hermit crabs), sea stars and giant clams (Tridacna sp.).
The MAX 250 has been designed specifically to be capable of supporting even the most delicate SPS corals, and offers no limitations other than the physical size of the aquarium.
The MAX was designed and equipped with a single clear objective: to make reefkeeping easier, more enjoyable and more successful for the beginner as well as the more experienced enthusiast. Compactness, ease-of-use and affordability were no less important design considerations than lighting and circulation performance.
Regular power compact lighting has a tube diameter of 6/8”, which is known as T6. T5 tubes haves a smaller diameter (5/8”) and produce a higher intensity output. The T5s used in the MAX are custom made power compacts that enable us to provide 55 watts of light in a smaller footprint than the equivalent (2 x 24 W) regular T5 tubes would provide. Regular power compact are often powered by magnetic ballasts, but the MAX T5 power compacts are powered by an electronic ballast to guarantee consistent high performance.
In the MAX 130 & 130D, regular power compacts will work in the MAX, however due to their tube diameter and overall length it will be difficult to fit them inside the hood. We strongly recommend using only the custom made MAX tubes.
The MAX 250 uses standard length 39 watt T5 linear lamps. While other makes of this type of lamp can be used, he results achievable with the MAX 250, especially with delicate corals, have been achieved using Red Sea lamps, designed specifically for the MAX.
No, the MAX Turbo Skimmer is based on the effective convergent-divergent technology reaction chamber developed for the Prizm / Prizm Pro skimmers, but here it is employed in a completely new way.
The MAX Turbo Skimmer is designed to operate as an “in-aquarium” skimmer only. The skimmer pump, featuring a new air injecting impellor design, is dedicated to the job of mixing the air and water inside the skimmer – and not pushing water through the skimmer. The skimmer pump inlet is located underneath the skimmer, so it’s constantly sucking in a mixture of new water flowing through the complete filter section and recycled water that has just exited the skimmer. The air / water ratio is such that the skimming effect is far superior to that achieved by the Prizm Pro. The pump cycles the complete volume of aquarium water 3.8 times per hour through the skimmer.
For the sake of comparison, the Prizm Pro is designed as a hang-on skimmer with a single pump that must perform the dual functions of pushing water through the skimmer and injecting the air into the system. The rating of the Prizm Pro is for cycling the aquarium water once every 2 hours, which in reality is no longer in line with our current awareness and philosophy on the role of skimming in a reef aquarium.
The Red Sea MAX has been designed to cater for different reef aquarium filtration methodologies. In factory standard guise, the MAX includes full mechanical, chemical and biological filtration, providing the ability to stock fish and invertebrates without live rock and with a high bio load. For more advanced hobbyists who follow the naturalist “Berlin” style, which relies on live rock, live sand and efficient protein skimming and circulation, the MAX allows you the option to exchange or reduce some of the filtration media, such as replacing the bio media with crushed live rock or reducing the height or density of the sponge filter material. The filter media affect the water flow through the filter system and therefore the effects of any changes in media should be monitored carefully.
Can I make changes/additions to the standard equipment?
Heater The MAX heater has been manufactured with a power cord that is the correct length to fit between the heater compartment and the power control center. The head of the heater has been designed so that the thermostat settings can be seen from above; and the heater’s diameter allows it to be inserted into the heater compartment. Be sure to take these points into account when selecting a replacement heater.
Powerheads The MAX powerheads were selected for their specific flow rate, physical dimensions and reliability. The flow rate of the pumps dictates the water flow through the entire filter system; this rate is finely balanced to ensure efficient protein skimming even when aquarium water levels drop due to evaporation. The powerheads are held in place through the smoked glass partition by custom designed adjustable outlets nozzles and the power cord length has been customized to reach the allocated outlets in the power center. If you are looking to increase the water currents within the aquarium it is best to do so by adding additional powerheads, the power cord of which can be run out of the back of the aquarium through the removable chiller access panel.
After extensive long-term testing, we found the circulation rate to be more than sufficient. We recommend that stick with the standard powerheads for the first few months of operation, giving your MAX ample time to settle and adjust to livestock levels, before adding any additional powerheads.
For optimum conditions a reef aquarium should be maintained at a stable water temperature in the range of 24-27°C / 76-81°F – the stability of the temperature being more important than the exact value. Slightly higher temperatures can be tolerated for short periods of time as long as the change in temperature is steady and not sudden.
When the MAX is run-in, in an environment with a steady ambient temperature of 22°C / 72°F or below, no cooling is necessary. In an ambient temperature from 23–25°C / 73-77°F, the optional water cooling fan at the back of the aquarium will keep the aquarium water below 27°C / 81°F. If the ambient temperature is above 26°C / 78°F a water chiller of approximately 1/10 HP for Max 130/130D, and 1/6 HP for Max 250 should be used.
It is important to consider the ventilation in the room where the MAX is to be kept as the hood is fan cooled and expels the heat generated from the light tubes into the room. In a closed room without ventilation, the ambient temperature can slowly rise.
Click here to download and read more in “Max 250 temperature control” PDF guide.
This is an easy operation,
• If changing a 10% system volume turn off the chiller if one is fitted (S 400 & 500 only)
• Turn off the fresh water top up water control valve,
• Turn off the skimmer aspiration pump.
• Turn off the return pump and flow pumps.
• You can now remove the old water via siphon tube to waste, at this point keep a few litres of old water.
• Replace with new water the exact volume of water removed ensure the salinity and temperature are closely matched.
• Restart the main return pump
• Leave for a few moments for the level in the sump to stabilise
• Restart the skimmer aspiration pump.
• If the level is lower than the normal running level (8” ) add some of the old saved water.
• Restart the flow pumps and restart the chiller.
• Open the freshwater top up control valve.
• Ensure that skimmer adjustments are checked frequently for approximately 1 hour after the water change, also check and adjust the fresh water auto top up.
** If only a 5% water change is performed you do not need to switch off the flow pumps as these are still subsurface.
Yes, there are a number of wave control devices available on the market, ensure the total wattage is not excessive, you can use a single pump switch or one of the accessory switches to power the devise.
Cleaning the sponges is best under taken when the main return pump is switched off so whilst performing a water change is the ideal time, we recommend small weekly water changes the sponges can be cleaned in freshwater as we do not really on them for biological filtration this is undertaken by the live rocks or alternative biological filtration if the S series is used as a fish only system.
Care must be taken if the nozzle is extended, it is possible to add a 90 degree elbow so flow can be pushed down the length of the aquarium, the length of the return nozzle helps prevent any siphon back to the sump in the event of a power outage.
You can set up your reef tank with or without a substrate at the bottom. We recommend using substrate, ideally an Aragonite-based substrate as it helps keep the water chemistry balanced. As Aragonite dissolves slowly in water, it releases calcium ions and carbonates that help maintain proper pH and alkalinity for good coral growth. In an established tank, when the substrate matures, it takes on the characteristics of “live sand” inhabited by millions of microorganisms. These creatures promote a successful aquarium, aiding the biological filtration processes of nitrification, denitrification and the consumption/decomposition of uneaten food. The substrate also provides a natural habitat for small worms and crustaceans that help clean the tank
from detritus and play a major role in the delicate ecosystem’s food chain.
The best way to understand the Reef Care Program (RCP) is to read through the manuals that we provide with the products. There are 4 manuals to read, 1 for each of the Foundation, Algae Management, Nutrition and Coloration programs. The manuals give a simple explanation of some of the biology/chemistry of what is going on in a reef aquarium and how the various products and programs work together to maintain a vibrant reef. The manuals also give a clear recipe for dosing the supplements. There is no guesswork required as all supplementing is based on measured water parameters. The Foundation and Algae management programs are definitely the place to start as these are responsible for creating and maintaining overall water conditions and therefore it is probably best to start with the 500ml liquid supplements of Foundation A,B & C and NO3PO4-X. You will need the Nitrate Pro test kit and the 3 Foundation kits to dose these properly. Depending on the corals you have in your tank you may want to implement the Nutrition and Coloration programs fairly quickly thereafter. Just for clarification the Coloration program is not a coral “paint box” but is our name for a set of 4 minor and trace element supplements that are regularly taken up by corals.
Within a few days there should be a measurable drop in Nitrates however it takes longer for a drop in Phosphates. Over time the nitrate and phosphate reduction will balance out, achieving the levels stated in the instructions. When moving from accelerated growth to enhanced color parameters there will be a noticeable difference in the appearance of the corals within a week
We recommend maintaining minimum levels of 0.25ppm Nitrate and 0.02ppm of Phosphate. These levels are good for the Zooxanthellae and other micro-fauna however they will not support the macro algae in a refugium. The purpose of NO3PO4-X is to manage nitrate and phosphate levels without other reactors or chemical media and gives absolute control to ensure the ideal conditions for the corals.
With these values of Nitrate and Phosphate you probably already have an effective nitrate and phosphate reducing system in place. Before converting to using NO3PO4-X you will need to stop using the current system. The only exception to this general rule is, if you have a denitrtator that uses a liquid carbon source you can keep the denitrator running but use NO3PO4-X as the carbon source
NO3PO4-X will provide a controlled reduction of Nitrate and Phosphate in all marine aquariums and can be combined safely with all other methods of reef keeping. Read the NO3PO4-X instructions carefully and stop using alternative methods of Nitrate and Phosphate control.
The Nitrate reducing bacteria colonies develop much quicker than Phosphate reducing bacteria and therefore it is just a question of time before you will see a noticeable effect on the Phosphates. In our instructions we do not even recommend checking Phosphate levels until the Nitrate drops below 1ppm and even then it is only to prevent overdosing of the NO3P04-X.
The NO3P04-X works from the first time it is added to the aquarium however it can take a few weeks for the NO3P04-X induced natural phosphate reducing process to produce a measurable reduction in the phosphate. This is a once only transition so bear with it and once removed do not return any chemical absorbers to the system.
Check that you are using the maximum dosage for the total volume of the system (i.e. 3ml per 100 liters) and that you are using a reliable test kit. If after 15 – 20 days you do not see any reduction in Nitrate please contact us directly to help identify the cause of the problem.
You will always notice a slight drop in pH values after adding the NO3P04-X especially if your pH probe is in the sump or close to where you add the NO3P04-X however after a short time the pH will return to normal. When first using NO3P04-X and until the system reaches its equilibrium the pH may be slightly lower than it was before. This is not a cause for concern.
The cloudiness / sludge are caused by excessive bacterial flocks that are caused either due to a lack of protein skimming or an excessive dose of NO3P04-X. Recalculate your aquarium volume and dosage and check that your skimmer is sufficiently aerating the water. At the first sign of cloudiness reduce your NO3P04-X dosage by 50 % until the water returns to normal clarity.
We recommend the use of good quality activated carbon as part of reef filtration and confirm that it does not affect the efficacy any of the RCP supplements. This is because activated carbon acts as a fine mechanical sponge that traps large organic molecules and then starts to adsorb negatively charged organic molecules (such a phenols) that are an end product of the decomposition of organic matter. There are no organic molecules in any of the RCP supplements that can be trapped or adsorbed by activated carbon.
The Algae control test kits are calibrated to give accurate results for water within the physical parameters of seawater. The kits can be used to give a qualitative (not quantitative) result with R/O water. The colors achieved may be slightly brighter than the color scale and may have an error of approx +/- 5%. This however is more than sufficient to determine if R/O membranes need replacing.
The Reef Energy A&B will provide all of the nutritional needs of your corals however adding phytoplankton and/or zooplankton in addition to Reef Energy will not do any harm however be on the lookout for any signs of overfeeding.
Unlike the natural reef environment, the reef aquarium is an artificial environment that is constantly affected by the chemical changes that take place in the relatively small volume of seawater. Our recommended levels of Foundation Elements and salinity is based on our research that has shown that the optimal levels of the foundation elements differ according to the variety and maturity of the specific coral population.
The Reef Care program is based on supplementing according to a measured uptake of the elements and therefore we do not give any recommended average dosing instructions. As a guideline for estimating the quantity of supplements required the following are the ranges for daily elemental uptake; Calcium 5 – 30 ppm, Magnesium 1 – 5 ppm, Alkalinity 0.25 – 1 meq/L (0.7 – 2.8 dKH)
Apart from Reef Energy A&B, all supplements can be diluted. Reef Energy A&B can and should be mixed together immediately before use but cannot be kept mixed for more than a very short time. In general, the other RCP supplements should not be mixed together before use as this will cause undesirable reactions between the chemicals. The only exception to this rule is Reef Foundation A&C and Reef Colors B (calcium, magnesium and potassium) which will not have any adverse reactions if mixed together.
In general it is best not to exceed the recommended maximum daily dosages however our instruction manuals err on the side of caution. In particular, adding a large amount of concentrated magnesium supplement at one time can damage individual animals that may come into contact with the concentrated supplement before it is properly dissolved throughout the full volume of aquarium water. Multiple doses of 10ppm can be added to an aquarium during a day provided a few hours are given between doses to allow the supplement to dissolve properly.
Reef Foundation ABC+ is formulated according to the expected Foundation Element uptake of an “average” reef aquarium. In practice no 2 aquariums are identical and therefore the actual uptake will differ from the ABC+ formula however the differences will only be significant over a period of time. Using ABC+ reduces the number of supplements that need to be added on a daily basis but it is still necessary to do a weekly adjustment with all of the individual supplements to keep all of the Foundation Elements at optimal levels.
ABC+ contains both calcium and carbonates which need to dissolve in the aquarium water without causing a precipitation of calcium carbonate and therefore we do not recommend adding more than 60g of ABC+ at one time. Since the idea of this product is to make dosing easier we do not recommend using it in aquariums that would require more than the maximum single dosage. The true definition of the maximum size of aquarium should be an aquarium that has a maximum daily uptake of 9g of calcium. This definition is useless to most hobbyists so we do not use it. A well stocked 300 liter SPS aquarium with water parameters set for accelerated growth will have a daily calcium uptake of approx 9g hence the rating we give.
After 6 months of normal use (8-10hrs per day), the output of any fluorescent lighting starts to decline. This can lead to the growth of undesirable algae, and is detrimental to the health and vitality of corals. Red Sea recommends that fluorescent tubes are replaced every 6-9 months to ensure optimum results.
A, Red Sea’s NO3 pro test kit is highly sensitive and very accurate. It is capable of detecting NO3 levels of 0.1 ppm in freshwater and sea water.
If the test kit is used to determine levels above 4 ppm, a dilution of the sample with distilled water is necessary, and therefore the quality of the water is crucial for the accuracy of the test.
It is common to think that the water coming out of a R.O. unit is pure, but the truth is that its quality depends on the rejection capabilities of the membrane and the quality of the tap water. Since most commercial membranes have a NO3 rejection rate of 95-90%, there might still be very small levels of NO3 present in the permeate water (for example, if the NO3 level at the tap water is 40 ppm, the level at the permeate will be 2 ppm at least, and this is a level that definitely affects the test). Therefore, it is recommended to pass the permeate water through DI resin which is changed frequently.
Another misconception is that the common inline TDS meters used on some R.O. systems can indicate very low levels of NO3. Unfortunately, most commercial TDS meters are not capable of detecting the influence of NO3 on the conductivity reading, and they can therefore give false readings.
Both the Reef Foundation A & C powders mix to the same concentration as the liquid equivalents. Foundation B mixes to one third of the strength of the liquid Foundation B. Therefore, you will need to add 3ml of stock solution per 100 litres/25 gallons in order to achieve an increase of 0.1 dKH.
It is normal for heat to be generated when mixing Foundation A, as it is caused by the nature of the dissolution reaction. The stock solution has brownish yellow tint due to the natural colours of the mixed elements composing the mixture.
In order to provide the most concentrated stock solution, we recommend a mixing dosage closest to the saturation limits of the components. Sometimes colloid residuals may appear in the solution but they are completely soluble when the solution is dosed to the aquarium, and are completely harmless. Mixing Foundation powders in slightly warmer water (30° C) will improve the solubility.
No. It is important that the Foundation Elements are dosed at least 10 minutes apart, in order to prevent any precipitation issues. The correct order to dose in is: Magnesium (Foundation C) then Carbonate (Foundation B) and Calcium (Foundation A)
No. Shake the Reef Energy and allow it to settle. A small amount of mould will cause no harm and it comes from active bacterial flocks. However if the product smells of rotten eggs this is an indication it has decomposed it should then be discarded.
No. Reef Energy is a complete coral food and can be dosed in to any type of system at our recommended levels. However significant over-dosing can increase the NO₃ and PO₄ levels leading to excessive algae growth and a bio-film covering live rocks.
The contraction of LPS corals after feeding is a common event, especially if they have already absorbed enough food. The coral starts to contract in order to reduce photosynthetic activity and use its available energy in the transportation of the food molecules through the entire colony, during which time it stops feeding and contracts.
The difference in colors is due to changes in the actual location of the zooxanthellae within inside the soft tissue during the transition from feeding to food transport and also related enzymatic activity during these processes.
Yes. It is easy to dose Coral Colors based on the calcium uptake. If you are replenishing your depleted calcium levels using Red Sea’s Reef Foundation A, there is a simple formula to dose Coral colors. For every 10ml of Reef Foundation A dosed, simply dose 1ml of each Colour A,B,C & D.
No, it is important to dose all Coral Colors in a balanced ratio to calcium uptake to replenish all minor and trace elements. This prevents unbalanced physiological activity that may lead to reduction in pigment formation, and bleaching.
No. Corals Colors come in four different types A, B, C & D and it is important they are not mixed, in order to prevent any interaction between the elements and to ensure that each group can be adjusted singly if necessary.
No, your test kit is not faulty.
The iron cycle is a very complex in the marine environment and it can be found in many chemicals forms, from free ions through inorganic and organic molecules up to large colloids connected to metals. This “soup” of chemicals increases the probability of spontaneous reactions, causing elements to spontaneously switch between phases.
These changes are enhanced and controlled by many factors such as salinity, pH but mostly by changes in alkalinity and the amount of organics and colloids in the water.
In a closed system such as an aquarium where there is often a high organic load and many dissolved organic colloids, the amount of free iron could be very small although the total iron could be very high. Usually this situation will lead to a darkening of the corals due to growth in the zooxanthellae population, and an outbreak of phytoplankton and other macro algae, even though you may measure zero levels of iron. On the other hand, in very pure saltwater most iron will be present as free-iron ions which can be toxic.
After a few minutes from the time you add the iron (Coral Colors C) to the aquarium you will probably measure levels around 0.05 ppm. This may last for several hours before it drops to zero (usually within 24 hrs). The reason for this is that the iron may have precipitated or bonded to organics substances.
The use of the Iron Test within Red Sea’s Coral Colors Test Kit will ensure that Iron is not over- dosed as long as the iron is still in free form. However the test will not detect iron which is not in its free form, and therefore a zero reading should be treated carefully as any overdose will cause stress to corals.
No, The Red Sea Iron test kit is designed to monitor Iron levels when dosing Coral Colors C, where iron levels are above normal seawater levels. Iron levels in seawater are in the region of 0.0005ppm. In Red Sea salt the level is 0.001ppm. Both these values are lower than the detection level of the test kit so the result will be shown as zero.
Yes, we actively recommend using dosing pumps. It is however important not to leave the cap off as this can cause evaporation. You can modify the bottle top by simply drilling two holes in the cap, one suitable for tubing the other for an inverted air non-return valve.
NO₃:PO₄-X enhances denitrifying and PAB (Phosphate Accumulating Bacteria) proliferation and activity.
It is essential to use an efficient protein skimmer in order to remove bacterial matter from the water column, as failing to do so may cause turbidity. In order to achieve optimal results please ensure the following guidelines:
• Ensure your skimmer is turned on and adjusted to produce wet foam.
• Ensure that the dosage is accurate, based on the true volume of the aquarium (and sump if used), taking into consideration displacement caused by rock and substrate.
• Dose according to accurate nitrate measurements, such as those provided by Red Sea’s Nitrate Pro Test Kit.
If you still experience slight cloudiness, reduce the dosage by 50% daily until the cloudiness clears. Cloudiness should dissipate after 1-2 days. Ensure you monitor the=nitrate content closely, and adjust the NO₃:PO₄-X dosage accordingly.
If livestock starts to show any signs of distress, perform an immediate water change of 25%, and monitor livestock behaviour closely, providing further partial water changes if necessary.
Yes, over a period of dosing NO₃:PO₄-X the skimate color may vary from dark green at first, then changing to tea color and subsequently turning bright green before reverting to a tea color. This is a transition period caused by nutrient changes within the system.
During the initial weeks of dosing NO₃:PO₄-X you will see a lot of bacterial activity due to the increase in populations of many different species of bacteria, growth of algae can be due to nutrient release, this is normal, this is a transition period for your aquarium and this algae growth will quickly subside.
There are many reasons which can create an outbreak of cyanobacteria or “Red Slime”, even in systems with very low nitrate and phosphate levels.
Cyano are the only life forms in the reef aquarium that can fix dissolved atmospheric nitrogen. Therefore unlike other algae types they do not need nitrate or ammonia making them the strongest micro-organism even in low nutrient type systems.
In order to inhibit the outbreak of cyanobacteria a proper ratio between P:N must be maintained, and therefore raising the NO₃ to at least 0.25ppm can help in correcting the balance of cyano bacteria in the aquarium. Poor protein skimming can also result in cyano bacteria. However, stable dKH value, good flow within the aquarium and good quality lighting at the correct colour temperature can help keep cyano bacteria at bay.
NO₃:PO₄-X reduces PO₄ levels by enhancing the proliferation and activity of PHA’s bacteria. When the bacterial population proliferates, bacterial flocks released to the water column are then taken out by the skimmer and therefore phosphates are stripped out of the system. Insufficient skimming will not strip enough bacteria out of the water and PO₄ may be released back to the system. Proper skimmer should have a water throughput of at least 3X system volume per hour and at most 1:3 air to water ratio for optimal skimming.
It is also important to understand the PO₄ cycle in the marine environment. During the reduction of PO₄ from the water column, PO₄ that was trapped as CaPO₄ in the live rocks and substrate, starts to leach out and the process may take between 3-4 months until the entire system strip itself from all PO₄ deposits.
No, it is important to continue dosing NO₃:PO₄-X but at a reduced dosage. Zero levels of NO₃ are not recommended as this can be detrimental to some animals. We advise a reduction of the NO₃:PO₄-X dosage by 50% and regular monitoring of NO₃ levels.If after 7 days you still have a zero reading, reduce the NO₃:PO₄-X dosage by a further 50% and dose Reef Energy A & B at the low-nutrient rate to prevent your corals from starving.
Download the Instructions for converting to NO3:PO4-X from PO4 and NO3 absorbers and sulfur based de-nitrators from our download center:
Oui, nous recommandons fortement l’usage d’une pompe doseuse. Il est cependant important de laisser le bouchon sur la bouteille pour empêcher l’évaporation. Vous pouvez facilement modifier le bouchon en le perçant de 2 trous, l’un pour le tuyau, l’autre pour une vanne anti-retour.
: Le NO3:PO4-X accentue la prolifération et l’activité des bactéries dé-nitrifiantes et stockant les Phosphates.
Il est primordial d’utiliser un écumeur efficace afin d’extraire la matière organique de la colonne d’eau. Le cas contraire peut causer de la turbidité. Afin d’atteindre des résultats optimaux merci de respecter les grandes lignes suivantes :
• Assurez-vous que votre écumeur est bien en marche et correctement réglé pour produire de l’écume.
• Assurez-vous que le dosage est précis, basé sur le vrai volume de l’aquarium (et de la décantation si vous en avez une), en comptant le volume pris par les roches vivantes et le substrat.
• Dosez le NO3:PO4-X en vous basant sur des tests Nitrates précis, fiables et sûrs, comme le Nitrate Pro Test Kit de Red Sea.
Si vous rencontrez une légère turbidité, réduisez le dosage journalier de 50% jusqu’à ce que l’eau redevienne claire. Cela doit prendre 1 ou 2 jours. Testez la teneur en Nitrates régulièrement et accordez le dosage du NO3:PO4-X en fonction des résultats.
Si le vivant présent dans l’aquarium commence à montrer des signes d’inconfort procédez à un changement d’eau immédiat de 25% et observez attentivement poissons et coraux. Procédez à un autre changement d’eau si nécessaire.
Oui, après un certain temps d’utilisation du NO3:PO4-X la couleur de l’écume va passer du vert foncé à une couleur thé pour tourner vert clair puis revenir à une couleur thé. C’est une période de transition causée par les changements touchant les nutriments dans le système.
Durant les premières semaines d’utilisation du NO3:PO4-X vous verrez plusieurs concrétisations de l’augmentation de l’activité bactérienne, dues à l’accroissement des populations bactériennes. L’apparition d’algues peut être due au rejet de nutriments, c’est normal et cela disparaitra une fois que la période de transition sera passée.
Il y a plusieurs raisons expliquant l’apparition des cyanobactéries en aquarium, même dans des systèmes très pauvres en Nitrates et Phosphates.
Les cyano sont la seule forme de vie dans l’aquarium qui peut fixer l’Azote dissous. Au contraire des autres types d’algues elles n’ont pas besoin de Nitrates ou d’ammoniaque ce qui fait d’elles le plus résistant des micro-organismes, même en aquarium très pauvre en nutriments.
Afin d’éviter les cyano un bon ratio entre les Nitrates et les Phosphates doit être maintenu. Du coup augmenter les Nitrates à 0.25ppm peut aider à corriger la situation de l’aquarium. Un mauvais écumage peut aussi provoquer l’apparition des cyano. Quoiqu’il en soit, un bon KH, une bonne circulation d’eau et un éclairage de bonne qualité à la bonne température de couleur aident à éviter les cyanos.
: Le NO3:PO4-X réduit les Phosphates en augmentant la prolifération et l’activité des bactéries stockant les Phosphates. Quand ces populations prolifèrent, des agglomérats bactériens sont relâchés dans l’eau et évacués par l’écumeur, les Phosphates sont ainsi extraits du système. Un écumeur insuffisant ne sortira pas assez de bactéries et les relâchera dans le système. Un bon écumeur devrait avoir un passage d’au moins 3x le volume d’eau de l’aquarium par heure et un ratio air:eau de 1:3.
C’est aussi important de comprendre le cycle des Phosphates en environnement marin. Durant la réduction des Phosphates, les Phosphates qui étaient « capturés » sous forme de CaPO₄ dans les roches vivantes et le substrat commencent à se diffuser. Ce processus prendra 3 à 4 mois jusqu’à ce que le système complet se libère de toutes ces accumulations de Phosphates.
Non. Il est important de continuer l’utilisation du NO3:PO4-X mais à dosage réduit. Zéro Nitrates n’est pas recommandé car cela peut venir à l’encontre de la bonne santé de certains animaux. Nous conseillons dans ce cas une réduction du dosage de 50% et un contrôle régulier du taux de Nitrates. Si après 7 jours vous avez encore des Nitrates à zéro, réduisez encore de 50% le dosage du NO3:PO4-X et ajoutez les Reef Energy A et B aux doses de basse nutrition pour éviter d’affamer vos coraux.
Les poudres Reef Foundation A & C donnent les mêmes concentrations que leurs équivalents liquides. Le Reef Foundation B donne un tiers de l’effet du Reef Foundation B liquide. Du coup vous devez ajouter 3ml de solution issue de la version poudre pour 100 litres afin d’atteindre une augmentation de 0.1dKH.
C’est en effet normal que de la chaleur se dégage en mélangeant le Reef Foundation A. C’est dû à la nature de la réaction de dissolution. La solution a une légère teinte à cause de la couleur naturelle des éléments composant la totalité du produit.
Afin de fournir la solution la plus concentrée, nous recommandons un dosage proche des limites de saturation des composants. Parfois des résidus colloïdaux apparaissent dans la solution mais ils sont complétement solubles quand la solution est ajoutée à l’aquarium. Ils sont absolument sans risque. Mélanger les poudres Reef Foundation dans une eau légèrement plus chaude (30°C) améliore la solubilité.
Oui. Il est important d’ajouter le liquide dans une zone de fort courant d’eau. Ces agglomérats disparaitront très rapidement sans problème. Introduire le Reef Foundation B doucement peut éviter ce phénomène.
Non, il est important que ces éléments soient introduits au moins à 10 minutes d’intervalle afin de prévenir toute précipitation. L’ordre de dosage correct est : le Magnésium (Reef Foundation C), puis les Carbonates (Reef Foundation B), puis le Calcium (Reef Foundation A).
Non, secouez le Reef Energy et laissez-le reposer. Une petite quantité de cet agglomérat ne portera pas atteinte à votre aquarium. Cela provient des flocons bactériens actifs. Cependant si le produit sent l’œuf pourri c’est qu’il s’est décomposé et qu’il doit être jeté.
Maintenez les bouteilles principales au frigo et remplissez de petites bouteilles avec suffisamment de produit pour un ou deux jours de dosage. Si possible, maintenez-les dans un endroit sombre et frais, idéalement sous les 20°C.
Non. Les Reef Energy sont de la nourriture complète pour coraux et peuvent donc être ajoutés à tous types de système récifaux à nos doses recommandées. Quoiqu’il en soit un gros surdosage peut augmenter les taux de Nitrates et Phosphates et mener à une croissance excessive d’algues ou de biofilm.
: La contraction des LPS après le nourrissage est un phénomène courant, spécialement s’ils ont déjà absorbé suffisamment de nourriture. Le corail se contracte pour réduire l’activité photosynthétique et utiliser l’énergie disponible pour la circulation des molécules nutritives dans toute la colonie. Durant ce travail il arrête de se nourrir et se contracte.
La différence de couleur est due à la position des zooxanthelles à l’intérieur des tissus mous durant la transition entre l’activité de nourrissage et celle du transport des molécules nutritives. Elle est aussi liée à l’activité enzymatique durant ce processus.
Oui. Ils se dosent en fonction de la consommation de Calcium. Si vous compensez la perte de Calcium en utilisant le Reef Foundation A de Red Sea, il y a une formule toute simple pour doser les additifs Coral Colors. Pour 10ml de Reef Foundation A ajoutés, dosez simplement 1ml de chaque Coral Colors (A, B, C et D).
Non, il est important de doser tous les additifs Coral Colors en fonction du Calcium pur compenser les pertes d’éléments mineurs et traces. C’est une prévention contre un déséquilibre de l’activité physiologique pouvant mener à une réduction de la pigmentation ou au blanchiment.
Non. Les Coral Colors viennent en quatre conditionnements, il est important de ne pas les mélanger car cela empêche de mauvaises interactions entre les composants et vous permet de garder le contrôle de chaque groupe individuellement, avec des dosages individualisés si nécessaire.
Oui, le test n’est pas à mettre en cause.
Le cycle du Fer est très complexe en environnement marin, il peut être trouvé sous différentes formes chimiques, allant des ions libres aux molécules organiques et inorganiques jusqu’aux colloïdes liés aux métaux. Cette « soupe » d’éléments chimiques accroit la possibilité de réactions spontanées provoquant le passage des éléments d’une phase à une autre.
Ces changements sont favorisés et contrôlés par plusieurs facteurs tels que la salinité et le pH mais surtout par l’alcalinité (KH) et la quantité de matière organique et de colloïdes dans l’eau.
Dans un système fermé tel qu’un aquarium où il y a souvent une forte charge organique et beaucoup de colloïdes organiques dissous, la quantité de Fer libre pourrait être très faible alors le Fer total pourrait être très haut. Habituellement cette situation mène à l’assombrissement des coraux à cause de l’augmentation des populations de zooxanthelles et à l’apparition de phytoplancton ou de macro algues, même si vous mesurez le Fer à zéro. D’un autre côté, dans une eau de mer très pure, la plupart du Fer présent le sera sous forme d’ions de Fer libre qui peuvent être toxiques.
Quelques minutes après avoir ajouté le Fer (Coral Colors C) à l’aquarium vous mesurerez surement un niveau autour de 0.05ppm. Ça peut durer quelques heures avant de chuter à zéro (en général moins de 24 heures). La raison est que le Fer peut avoir précipité ou s’être lié à des substances organiques.
L’utilisation du test Fer présent dans le Coral Colors Test Kit vous assurera le non surdosage du Fer tant qu’il est dans sa forme libre. Cependant le test ne détectera pas le Fer dans sa forme non libre. De fait une lecture à zéro doit toujours être interprétée avec beaucoup de précautions, un surdosage pouvant stresser les coraux.
Non, le test Fer Red Sea a été développé pour contrôler le niveau de Fer en utilisant le Coral Colors C, où il est supérieur à celui du milieu naturel. En eau de mer naturelle ce niveau se situe autour de 0.0005ppm. Dans les sels Red Sea il est de 0.001ppm. Cependant ces deux valeurs sont inférieures au niveau de détection de notre test Fer, le résultat affiché devrait donc être zéro.